Sites & cities that bear the name of Urfa


Today in : Turkey
First trace of activity : ca. 9,000 B.C.E
Last trace of activity : today
Recorded names : אדמא‎, Adme, Admi, Admum, Edessa, Ἔδεσσα, Edesse, Callirrhoe, Antiochia on the Callirhoe, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Καλλιρρόης, Ուռհա, Urha, Ourha, Orhay, ܐܘܪܗܝ, الرُّهَا ,الرها‎, ar-Ruhā, Şanlıurfa, Riha‎, Şanlıurfa, Riha‎, Ուռհա, Uṙha, ܐܘܪܗܝ, Ūrhay, Ūrhāi, الرُّهَا‎‎, alruha, Admaʾ, Antiochia on the Callirhoe, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Καλλιρρόης, Antiochia on the Callirhoe, Justinopolis, Balıklıgöl, Riha, ܐܘܪܗܝ‎, Gürcütepe, Kazane Tepe, Urhay, , Urfa

Description : Urfa, officially known as Şanlıurfa (pronounced ; Kurdish: Riha‎; Ուռհա Uṙha in Armenian, ܐܘܪܗܝ Ūrhay in Syriac) and known in ancient times as Edessa, is a city with a population of over 2 million residents in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Şanlıurfa Province. Urfa is a multiethnic city with a Turkish, Kurdish, Armenian and Arab population. Urfa is situated on a plain about eighty kilometres east of the Euphrates River. Its climate features extremely hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Islam first arrived in Urfa around 638 AD, when the region surrendered to the Rashidun army without resisting, and became a significant presence under the Ayyubids (see: Saladin Ayubbi), Seljuks. In 1144, the Crusader state fell to the Turkish Abassid general Zengui, who had most of the Christian inhabitants slaughtered together with the Latin archbishop (see Siege of Edessa) and the subsequent Second Crusade failed to recapture the city. Subsequently, Urfa was ruled by Zengids, Ayyubids, Sultanate of Rum, Ilkhanids, Memluks, Akkoyunlu and Safavids before Ottoman conquest in 1516. Under the Ottomans Urfa was initially made centre of Raqqa Eyalet, laterly part Urfa (Sanjak) of the Aleppo Vilayet. The area became a centre of trade in cotton, leather, and jewellery. There was a small but ancient Jewish community in Urfa, with a population of about 1,000 by the 19th century. Most of the Jews emigrated in 1896, fleeing the Hamidian massacres, and settling mainly in Aleppo, Tiberias and Jerusalem. There were three Christian communities: Syriac, Armenian, and Latin. According to Lord Kinross, 8,000 Armenians were massacred in Urfa in 1895. The last Neo-Aramaic Christians left in 1924 and went to Aleppo (where they settled in a place that was later called Hay al-Suryan "The Syriac Quarter").

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